The traditional philosophical historiography is used to date the beginning of Karl Jaspers’ political interest back to the Second World War. According to this interpretation political problems and topics become an important subject of Jaspers’ philosophy only after the famous essay The Question of German Guilt (1946). Without overlooking the deep difference between Jaspers’ political meditation before 1933 and the one after 1945, the essay states that Jaspers’ interest in politics is closely connected with his philosophical attitude. This means the philosophical thought as a practice of existencial clarification and endless transformation of human spiritual life, in accordance with the responsible choices of each individual. In particular Jaspers’ political philosophy takes root in the existential meaning of some central concepts of his philosophy: for example the idea of reason (Vernunft) in opposition to the logical intellect (Verstand), the conception of human beeing and the duality between “beeing” (Dasein) and “existence” (Existenz), Jaspers’ comprehension of sickness, the transcendental aim and the ethical sense of his philosophy. If the philosophy has to be a “praxis of life” (Lebenspraxis) addressed to fulfil concretely, and on the basis of the historical human situation, the requirement of freedom and dignity that the human nature sets forward, than the philosopher can not ignor what creates real conditions allowing the humans beeing and human societies to live in a civil way, that is politics. According to this perspective the relationship between philosophy and politics is necessary and mutual, so the historical experience of the war and of totalitarian regimes has not to be seen as an unexpected turning-point, but rather as a dramatic proof of the centrality of politics for human lifes and as a call for political responsability. Through terrible events like those Jaspers achieved the deep awareness that “there is no great philosophy without political thought”. The first part of the paper expounds briefly the philosophical premisses of Jaspers’ way of unterstanding politics with reference to his first important works, Allgemeine Psychopathologie (1913) and Psychologie der Weltanschauungen (1919). The second and the third parts analyse two texts, whose subject is political even if they have been written before the Schuldfrage: the lecture Politische Stimmungen (1917) and the critical essay Die geistige Situation der Zeit (1931). By illustrating their contents the paper points out the similarities between the two works on the one hand, the differences and the peculiarities of each of them also dueing to different historical periods they have been written on the other hand. In particular the analysis of the second text shows which idea of politics Jaspers has and makes clear the tight interrelationship between Jaspers’ philosophical way of thinking and his critical diagnosis of the historical and political situation. At the same time the limits of Jaspers’ political investigation are shown: they are due to the fact that the attention to the reality is always subordinated to the philosophical view. In this way the intellectual categories of the Existenzphilosphie and in particular the ontological antinomy between Dasein and Existenz taint Jaspers’ political analysis and prevent it from being politically efficacious and persuasive. His awareness of historical reality remains abstract and, even though his realistic way of regarding the political world ist theoretically good defined, it seems unable to make out historical happenings and concrete reality dangers. The Second World War and the horror of National Socialist dictatorship will bring to full maturity the philosophical attitude showed by Karl Jaspers towards the human being and all the aspects of his existence, from medicine up to politics.

Le origini del pensiero politico di Karl Jaspers

Alessiato E
2005

Abstract

The traditional philosophical historiography is used to date the beginning of Karl Jaspers’ political interest back to the Second World War. According to this interpretation political problems and topics become an important subject of Jaspers’ philosophy only after the famous essay The Question of German Guilt (1946). Without overlooking the deep difference between Jaspers’ political meditation before 1933 and the one after 1945, the essay states that Jaspers’ interest in politics is closely connected with his philosophical attitude. This means the philosophical thought as a practice of existencial clarification and endless transformation of human spiritual life, in accordance with the responsible choices of each individual. In particular Jaspers’ political philosophy takes root in the existential meaning of some central concepts of his philosophy: for example the idea of reason (Vernunft) in opposition to the logical intellect (Verstand), the conception of human beeing and the duality between “beeing” (Dasein) and “existence” (Existenz), Jaspers’ comprehension of sickness, the transcendental aim and the ethical sense of his philosophy. If the philosophy has to be a “praxis of life” (Lebenspraxis) addressed to fulfil concretely, and on the basis of the historical human situation, the requirement of freedom and dignity that the human nature sets forward, than the philosopher can not ignor what creates real conditions allowing the humans beeing and human societies to live in a civil way, that is politics. According to this perspective the relationship between philosophy and politics is necessary and mutual, so the historical experience of the war and of totalitarian regimes has not to be seen as an unexpected turning-point, but rather as a dramatic proof of the centrality of politics for human lifes and as a call for political responsability. Through terrible events like those Jaspers achieved the deep awareness that “there is no great philosophy without political thought”. The first part of the paper expounds briefly the philosophical premisses of Jaspers’ way of unterstanding politics with reference to his first important works, Allgemeine Psychopathologie (1913) and Psychologie der Weltanschauungen (1919). The second and the third parts analyse two texts, whose subject is political even if they have been written before the Schuldfrage: the lecture Politische Stimmungen (1917) and the critical essay Die geistige Situation der Zeit (1931). By illustrating their contents the paper points out the similarities between the two works on the one hand, the differences and the peculiarities of each of them also dueing to different historical periods they have been written on the other hand. In particular the analysis of the second text shows which idea of politics Jaspers has and makes clear the tight interrelationship between Jaspers’ philosophical way of thinking and his critical diagnosis of the historical and political situation. At the same time the limits of Jaspers’ political investigation are shown: they are due to the fact that the attention to the reality is always subordinated to the philosophical view. In this way the intellectual categories of the Existenzphilosphie and in particular the ontological antinomy between Dasein and Existenz taint Jaspers’ political analysis and prevent it from being politically efficacious and persuasive. His awareness of historical reality remains abstract and, even though his realistic way of regarding the political world ist theoretically good defined, it seems unable to make out historical happenings and concrete reality dangers. The Second World War and the horror of National Socialist dictatorship will bring to full maturity the philosophical attitude showed by Karl Jaspers towards the human being and all the aspects of his existence, from medicine up to politics.
Karl Jaspers; Existenzphilosophie
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12570/14962
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