Within the cooperation project between the University of Naples Suor Orsola Benincasa and the Archaeological Mission in Hattuša of the German Archaeological Institute of Istanbul, directed by Andreas Schachner, in agreement with the Turkish Ministry of Culture and Tourism, the workgroup of the University of Naples, since 2014, is conducting an extensive research, still ongoing, aimed at the digitalization and study of extensive archaeological contexts and architectural structures, such as: the Nișantaș inscription, the Kammer 2 in the Südburg, the whole rocky site of Yazılıkaya, the entire area of the gorge and, since 2019, the area of the Great Temple. The research aims to investigate the potential use of different 3D digitization systems applied to different architectural and decorative contexts of the city of Hattusa, with reference to scalar data management procedures, aimed at the analysis of monuments and the development of future procedures of simulation and advanced use of models. During 2017, activities focused on an area of particular interest because it is on the edge of the city's eastward expansion, where the orography of the area takes on complex shapes due to the considerable height differences of the rock outcrops. This is the rocky complex that, from the Ambarlıkaya massif, through a narrow gorge (characterised by the presence of a rock formation which is called “Minaret” due to its particular shape) crossed by a stream, up to the slopes of the southern ridge of Büyükkaya. The area, and in particular the gorge that divides the two rock formations of Ambarlıkaya and Büyükkaya, presents various problematic aspects in terms of the urban and defensive structure of Hattusa (Fig. 1). In fact, the fortification wall had to pass through this gorge, descended from the northern slope of Büyükkale to the south-eastern ridge of Ambarlıkaya, ascended along the southern rocky spur of Büyükkaya. The traces of workmanship (and holes), at the top and on the intermediate levels of the various rock formations, as well as along the walls of the gorge itself, relating to the preparation of the surfaces for the housing of the elements that were to substantiate the elevation of this section of the fortification, have led in the past to various reconstructive hypotheses regarding the architectural and engineering characteristics, especially in relation to the "jump" over the gorge. At the base of the southern slope of Büyükkaya the presence of two sections of a tunnel, certainly excavated in ancient times and not completed, designed to cross the rocky spur in an east-west direction, poses significant problems of interpretation not only related to its functionality, but above all related to the construction techniques and the system of knowledge necessary to define the design "process" to support such a work. The work carried out during the last campaign of 2017 consisted in the creation of a geo-referenced network of markers, using a Leica TCR405 total station, within which three-dimensional surveys were carried out with TOF laser scanners. These were supplemented by detailed photogrammetric digitization procedures using a Nikon D810 camera and general digitization of the entire topography of the area with a GoPro camera, focusing on the northern slope of Büyükkale, the Ambarlıkaya cliff, the gorge with the “Minaret” and the whole southern spur of Büyükkaya. In addition to these activities, detailed surveys were carried out by means of a Sense bodyscanner, in particular focusing on two holes in the rock detached from the Ambarlıkaya wall, of interest for the analysis phases of the uses and transformations of the places. These activities were all aimed at creating a basic topographic model, in which the specific models of the walls and surfaces of the gorge can be managed. A detailed photographic campaign of all the traces of workings/predisposition of the rock surfaces was associated with the scanner surveys, not only in the gorge area, but also at the top of Ambarlıkaya (Bolatti Guzzo 2017).

The city walls on the Hattusa gorge. From digital survey to the signs of an architecture.

Leopoldo Repola
2020

Abstract

Within the cooperation project between the University of Naples Suor Orsola Benincasa and the Archaeological Mission in Hattuša of the German Archaeological Institute of Istanbul, directed by Andreas Schachner, in agreement with the Turkish Ministry of Culture and Tourism, the workgroup of the University of Naples, since 2014, is conducting an extensive research, still ongoing, aimed at the digitalization and study of extensive archaeological contexts and architectural structures, such as: the Nișantaș inscription, the Kammer 2 in the Südburg, the whole rocky site of Yazılıkaya, the entire area of the gorge and, since 2019, the area of the Great Temple. The research aims to investigate the potential use of different 3D digitization systems applied to different architectural and decorative contexts of the city of Hattusa, with reference to scalar data management procedures, aimed at the analysis of monuments and the development of future procedures of simulation and advanced use of models. During 2017, activities focused on an area of particular interest because it is on the edge of the city's eastward expansion, where the orography of the area takes on complex shapes due to the considerable height differences of the rock outcrops. This is the rocky complex that, from the Ambarlıkaya massif, through a narrow gorge (characterised by the presence of a rock formation which is called “Minaret” due to its particular shape) crossed by a stream, up to the slopes of the southern ridge of Büyükkaya. The area, and in particular the gorge that divides the two rock formations of Ambarlıkaya and Büyükkaya, presents various problematic aspects in terms of the urban and defensive structure of Hattusa (Fig. 1). In fact, the fortification wall had to pass through this gorge, descended from the northern slope of Büyükkale to the south-eastern ridge of Ambarlıkaya, ascended along the southern rocky spur of Büyükkaya. The traces of workmanship (and holes), at the top and on the intermediate levels of the various rock formations, as well as along the walls of the gorge itself, relating to the preparation of the surfaces for the housing of the elements that were to substantiate the elevation of this section of the fortification, have led in the past to various reconstructive hypotheses regarding the architectural and engineering characteristics, especially in relation to the "jump" over the gorge. At the base of the southern slope of Büyükkaya the presence of two sections of a tunnel, certainly excavated in ancient times and not completed, designed to cross the rocky spur in an east-west direction, poses significant problems of interpretation not only related to its functionality, but above all related to the construction techniques and the system of knowledge necessary to define the design "process" to support such a work. The work carried out during the last campaign of 2017 consisted in the creation of a geo-referenced network of markers, using a Leica TCR405 total station, within which three-dimensional surveys were carried out with TOF laser scanners. These were supplemented by detailed photogrammetric digitization procedures using a Nikon D810 camera and general digitization of the entire topography of the area with a GoPro camera, focusing on the northern slope of Büyükkale, the Ambarlıkaya cliff, the gorge with the “Minaret” and the whole southern spur of Büyükkaya. In addition to these activities, detailed surveys were carried out by means of a Sense bodyscanner, in particular focusing on two holes in the rock detached from the Ambarlıkaya wall, of interest for the analysis phases of the uses and transformations of the places. These activities were all aimed at creating a basic topographic model, in which the specific models of the walls and surfaces of the gorge can be managed. A detailed photographic campaign of all the traces of workings/predisposition of the rock surfaces was associated with the scanner surveys, not only in the gorge area, but also at the top of Ambarlıkaya (Bolatti Guzzo 2017).
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12570/23590
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